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The problem of ordering things over the phone is sometimes you get a bit more than you bargain for.
All I wanted was a great big hunk of Swiss cheese.
Well, I got it.
185 pounds of genuine Swiss cheese.
This all started when I thought it would be fun to show you how to make our special non-collapsible cheese soufflé today on The French Chef.
♪ ♪ Welcome to The French Chef.
I'’’m Julia Child.
This is a cheese soufflé.
And it'’’s a very special one.
It'’’s both non-collapsible and unmoldable.
Have you ever seen a cheese soufflé like that, which you can unmold?
And it'’’s non-collapsible '’’cause it'’’s not gonna sink down.
I'’’m just gonna leave it over here, and you can, you can see how it stays up while we'’’re making another one.
And now, as long as this is going to be a cheese soufflé, we might as well take a look at some cheeses.
If you'’’re going to make a French cheese soufflé, you always use, uh, Gruyère or Emmental Swiss cheese.
(clears throat) And this is the genuine Swiss cheese, which is called an Emmental, and it has the great big holes in it.
There are two types of what we call Swiss cheese from Switzerland.
There'’’s the other one called the Gruyère, which has little tiny holes in it, as you can see.
And this, the Gruyère has... is less fat and a little more salty than the Emmental.
I'’’m always confusing which the two are, and I finally invented a system which I think... by which I can remember them.
"Emmental" means "immense towel hole," so you can remember Emmental between Gruyère.
For this soufflé, you can use either one.
You can, probably usually, find the Emmental with the big holes.
And to make sure that it'’’s Swiss, when they cut it up, they always leave some of the rind on.
In the Gruyère, it says, "G-R-U-Y-E accent grave R-E, Switzerland."
And the both of them always say, have "Switzerland" all written on them, just like this great big wheel of cheese over here that says "Switzerland, Switzerland, Switzerland," all the way around.
There are other kinds of Swiss, like Wisconsin Swiss and Danish Swiss and French Swiss.
But the Swiss Swiss, I think, has a particular taste that nothing else has.
And if you want, if you'’’re going to buy the cheese, you want to keep it in a plastic bag in the refrigerator.
It... because it can turn moldy in about, oh, in a certain amount of time.
Probably, you can keep it about two or three weeks in the refrigerator, but if you want to keep it very well, one of the best things I found for keeping cheese is this, is a glass jar like this, and the name of it is the sanitary cheese preserver.
This is on the theory that cleanliness and sanitariness is goodness.
And the wonderful thing about this is-- and what'’’s the point of it-- is it has up and down wedges in the bottom of it, which are about half an inch high.
And then, the secret is that you fill it with about a third of a cup of white vinegar and two tablespoons of water and one tablespoon of salt, and you swish that liquid all around.
And then, when you put your cheese in, the cheese is above the liquid, and it'’’s this vinegar, salty liquid that preserves it.
Then you put the cover on and put it in the refrigerator, and the cheese keeps remarkably well.
And these you can find sometimes at department stores or old country stores or gourmet stores.
And if you don'’’t have one, you can make one perfectly easily by filling the bottom of a bowl with marbles and then putting in the vinegar and putting a top on.
But these are, I think, these are very nice.
And then, if you'’’re going to use cheese in cooking, you usually grate it so it will melt quickly.
And freshly grated cheese always has the best taste.
And we'’’ll just do... go for a bit of grating exercise.
I'’’m gonna take off the rind that says "Switzerland, Switzerland."
And, of course, there are many kinds of graters.
You have this four-sided one that you can get at any hardware store, with coarse holes.
And if you can get one that'’’s stainless steel, it'’’s much the best because it doesn'’’t rust.
Then there'’’s this cute little hand grater that'’’s called a Mouli, which is very nice.
If you just have small amounts of cheese, you put the cheese in and turn the crank, and there comes your grated cheese out.
And those are very convenient.
And then again, if you have quite a bit of cheese, you might want one of these table models here.
I got this at someplace in France, but I suppose you can get them around here, too.
You put the cheese in, there'’’s a wooden pusher, and then you turn the crank and out comes the cheese.
And then if, again, if you have large quantities of cheese, and you happen to have an electric mixer that has an attachment for grating, you just put all the cheese in and turn on the power.
(whirring) And there you are.
I think these are very useful.
And then, very often a recipe will say that you will have to have one cup of lightly packed, grated cheese.
And one cup is... one cup of lightly packed cheese is four ounces.
So if you remember those figures, you'’’ll know how much to buy.
And so now, after we'’’ve gotten the cheese all grated for the cheese soufflé, we have to get ourselves ready, and the first thing to do is to read the recipe.
It'’’s a terrible thing how lots of people just forget to read the recipe, or they get halfway through a recipe and they find that something has happened and... or there'’’s something unexpected, and so they can'’’t do it.
And I think the point is: if you have recipes that you rely on, and you carefully read the recipe and you followed all the directions, and the dish doesn'’’t come out, it'’’s the recipe'’’s fault, it'’’s not your fault.
So just remember that: if you go through it carefully, the recipe ought to turn out just the way it should.
Now, this recipe says, "Preheat the oven to 350 degrees "and put the rack in the lower middle and set a pan of water in the oven."
I'’’ve already done that, so we don'’’t have to do that.
And the next thing says, "Prepare an eight-cup soufflé dish."
And now, this... our non-collapsible soufflé here we made in a French charlotte mold which is four inches high.
And the reason that you want a high mold for this soufflé is, though we call it non-collapsible, it does sink down about half the size of the soufflé so that you-- a half the size of the dish-- so you want something that'’’s high.
This French charlotte mold is four inches high, which you can only get them at a French store.
And this is a typical... typical mold that they usually use for soufflés, but that'’’s too low.
That'’’s only about two and a half inches.
But you can use any kind of a baking dish.
This would be quite a good size.
And this is an extremely useful American model here.
This is about-- you see, this is even higher than our French dish, and this is an eight-cup, fireproof ceramic bowl, so I'’’m gonna use that.
It'’’s better to use the kind of things that you can get.
And to prepare the soufflé mold, you are... it means to butter it.
I always use my fingers for buttering, '’’cause I think it'’’s much easier.
And you want to be sure to have lots of butter in the bottom, because if it isn'’’t thoroughly buttered, you then cannot unmold it.
Now, this eight-cup mold will serve six to eight people.
But just be sure, in making this dish, that you have it heavily, heavily buttered, particularly on the bottom.
And then we'’’re going to sprinkle the interior of the mold with cheese.
You could use bread crumbs, you could use Parmesan cheese, and I'’’m just gonna use our grated Swiss.
And the point of this is to give a little, uh... little nice brown color to the bottom, and also so that the soufflé will unmold nicely.
I put in about two tablespoons of cheese in that.
And so now, all you need to remember with this-- in this first part of this soufflé-- is get yourself any kind of a mold that'’’s high enough.
You want it to be four or five inches high and hold eight cups.
If you don'’’t have a high one, you could even use a, uh, a straight-sided saucepan.
I'’’ve used that frequently.
And if the handle is fairly straight, you can unmold perfectly easily.
And then the next thing to do is to assemble your ingredients.
For this, we need eggs, milk, butter, flour, cheese.
And then we need various utensils, like a saucepan and a whip.
And then if you get yourself in the habit of doing that always, then you can get very quickly ahead.
And then we are going to do our sauce base because this-- a soufflé is, and I'’’m always saying this '’’cause I think it'’’s a good thing for you to remember, all it is is a thick sauce with a flavoring, and the flavoring can be mushrooms, fish, tomato, chocolate, or in this case, cheese.
And then it is stiffly beaten egg whites, and the egg whites make the soufflé puff as the soufflé goes into the oven.
And for our thick sauce base, we'’’re gonna make a béchamel, and this is our old friend, the béchamel, just like our old friend, the velouté.
It is-- We'’’re going to have two and a half tablespoons of butter, and three tablespoons of flour, and they'’’re gonna cook slowly together.
Remember, when you'’’re measuring your flour, dip your spoon in and level it off.
There'’’s one tablespoon.
And three tablespoons.
And while that'’’s cooking, we also-- we'’’re going to have three-quarters of a cup of milk.
And that'’’s to be heating, also.
And then... we cook the butter and flour together slowly, so that they'’’re to foam and froth for about two minutes without coloring.
And then, when we'’’ve done that, we have a roux, R-O-U-X.
We'’’ve had an awful lot of roux, too, but always remember that you cook your butter and your flour together.
And then you take that off heat and let it cool for just a moment.
And then as soon as your milk is hot, you then pour it all into the soufflé.
Wait for a moment until that has stopped bubbling.
All of this is so that you won'’’t get any lumps in your sauce.
And then in goes your milk.
And then stir it vigorously with a wire whip.
Make sure that you get all around the edges and corners of the pan so that you have all of your roux, your flour and butter mixed in with the liquid, and then you set it over heat again, and you let it cook until it thickens.
Certainly these two cousinly sauces-- the velouté and the béchamel-- are so terribly quickly made.
And if you always remember to cook your flour and butter together, you don'’’t need any more than just letting it come up for the boil and just boil for one minute, because your flour'’’s already been cooked.
See, now that'’’s thick now and just let it... You see, it'’’s bubbling in there.
And just let that bubble for just about a moment, and then it'’’s just as thick as it will be.
And then we'’’re going to have one half teaspoon of salt and some pepper and some nutmeg, and that all goes in.
I'’’m gonna use...
I always like to use freshly-ground pepper.
I think about three grinds, which would give a good pinch, and then a little bit of nutmeg.
You can often find these nutmeg graters.
I found this in my hardware store.
They'’’re getting to be rather popular now, and they'’’re very convenient.
And then one half teaspoon of salt.
And that all gets mixed up.
And now, we have the makings... Now let'’’s see, we have to have three eggs in this.
And we want just the egg yolks.
And the egg yolks go in simply to add a little... a little... strength and richness to the soufflé base.
And you beat the egg yolk in to that hot sauce.
And I like to, really, I usually like to put the eggs... break the eggs into a little jar first, so that if I have... if I have any bits of egg yolk in the white, I can get it out and I don'’’t ruin my whole mixture.
There'’’s two eggs in.
That goes again into my container.
And now the third egg.
Now we have three egg yolks in the sauce and three whites in reserve.
Now we come to... so far, this is just like any ordinary soufflé, but the difference is, if you had an ordinary soufflé... we'’’ll look at our non-collapsible one.
An ordinary soufflé would be just as flat as a pancake by this time, but this one, because it'’’s done in a special way, has stayed up.
And the difference is entirely in the egg whites.
The ordinary soufflé has one more egg white than egg yolk, and this soufflé has twice as many egg whites as egg yolks.
I have three egg whites here, and I have three more here, which makes three-quarters of a cup.
And the whole success in the soufflé is in how you beat your egg whites and how you fold them in.
That'’’s really... if there'’’s any secret at all, it'’’s the egg white handling that is the whole... this is the whole crux of the matter.
So, now, we have the sauce base made, and we'’’re now gonna beat the egg whites.
Now on this, you can beat the egg whites either in a mixer or any kind of a bowl.
I just like to use my French equipment, which is a copper bowl and a big wire whip.
I'’’m gonna put a pot holder down, so that the bowl won'’’t slip.
We have six egg whites, or three-quarters of a cup, and in they go.
And then start beating very slowly.
You do exactly the same way if you were beating them in the machine.
Start slowly until the egg whites begin to foam, which means that you'’’ve begun to broke them up.
And then as soon as they'’’ve broken up, then you would add-- if you'’’re using a copper bowl like this-- you would add, in any case, you would add a little bit of salt, which gives them some flavor.
That'’’s about a quarter of a teaspoon.
And then if you'’’re using an electric mix or any other kind of bowl, use a fairly full quarter teaspoon of cream of tartar, which has the effect of keeping the egg whites mounted.
And then go on beating.
Now, while I'’’m beating, I'’’ll go over the ingredients to that béchamel sauce again.
That'’’s two and a half tablespoons of butter, three tablespoons of flour, and three quarters cup of hot milk, one half tablespoon salt, and a good pinch of pepper and nutmeg, and then three egg yolks and six egg whites.
Now be sure when you'’’re beating egg whites that you beat in an absolutely clean, dry bowl, and that you have an absolutely clean, dry whip, and that there are no specks of yolks in your whites, because if there are, you'’’ll find that your egg whites won'’’t mount.
They'’’re supposed to mount seven times the original volume.
And that was with three quarters of a cup, that'’’s seven... times three is 21, divided by four, that was... You should get five full cups of beaten egg whites.
Now I can beat a little faster.
Another thing is, if your egg whites are at room temperature, you'’’re gonna get more volume.
So I would take them out, let them sit around for a while.
So those are, I should say, just about done.
You see, they'’’re holding in the beater, and when you lift them up, they make sharp points, and the point drops down just a little bit, and that means that they'’’re just right.
You don'’’t want them overbeaten '’’cause they'’’re supposed to be moist and velvety and not dry.
And another way you can tell is to hold the bowl upside down.
See, and they stay perfectly.
So remember, now, this is the very important thing: you'’’ve got to beat your egg whites properly.
They'’’ve got to hold in the whip like this, or you'’’ve got to be able to turn the bowl upside down, and they can'’’t be dry.
And so now we have all the makings for our soufflé.
We have our thick sauce base, and we have our flavoring, which is cheese, and we have our meat and egg whites.
So we can assemble it all.
And... Now, the first thing is you put in a big dollop of egg whites.
And you just frankly stir that in.
And this is to lighten your sauce so that you can fold the rest in easily.
And then you put in your one cup of grated Swiss cheese.
And then you stir that all around.
See, the point is that you have to have the sauce liquid enough so that you can fold the rest of the things in easily without deflating your egg whites.
Because your egg whites are your puffy medium, and if you deflate them, you don'’’t get no soufflé.
So now we have the folding business, which we'’’ve done many times before, of taking a rubber spatula right down through the middle and then to the side of the pan.
The spatula'’’s flat, and then it comes up, so that, you see, you'’’re bringing a little bit of your mixture up over your egg whites.
And this whole business of folding is so that you are not deflating your egg whites.
'’’Cause if all those little air bubbles get deflated by a rough handling of the folding, then you will not have any kind of a puff soufflé.
And this should all take just about a minute, and you keep turning the pan around, and getting up, down, around the corners and in the middle of the soufflé, and you don'’’t want to over-fold.
And then it goes into the mold.
And with this soufflé, it is going to-- as it cools-- it'’’s going to... when it bakes, it puffs way up, and then as it cools, it sinks down to about where it originally filled the mold, a little bit more.
So you want to fill the mold by up to about two-thirds.
If you fill the mold too high because you have this extra egg white, you'’’ll find that the soufflé will come up over, that it might spill over, and then again, you won'’’t have no soufflé.
You'’’ll just have a mess in the oven and a little bit left in the dish.
And so now, this is filled by about two-thirds, and it'’’s ready to go into the oven.
And the oven has been preheated for a good 20 minutes at 350.
The rack'’’s in the lower middle, and then it sets in a pan of water.
And the reason that it sets in the pan of water-- this is your other secret in this soufflé, besides the extra egg whites-- is that it is to cook very slowly, and having it in a pan of...
I mean, the pan of the water slows it down, '’’cause the pan... the water can'’’t get more than 212.
So this cooks for about an hour to an hour and 15 minutes.
And then, when it'’’s done, you can still leave it in the warming... in the warming oven.
I'’’ve got to take out my platter first.
And it will sink down to where it'’’s supposed to.
And... out she comes.
That'’’s what I like about this soufflé, it'’’s that it doesn'’’t boss you, you boss it.
'’’Cause if it'’’s ready before you are, you can just leave it in a warm oven and nothing will happen to it at all.
And so, we are now ready to unmold it.
You see, that was done a little ahead of time, and I turned the oven down a bit, and it sunk down a little bit with just about the same...
It came up to there, and then it goes down as it cools.
And then butter your serving platter first.
And you'’’ll see why I suggest that you butter it in a moment.
And then, turn the platter upside down over the mold.
And then reverse the two.
Now while this is an awfully good mold, you'’’ll find that it... you'’’ll find that it'’’s a little bit difficult to unmold because it doesn'’’t have any edges that you can get hold of.
So you have to lift it up.
This is why... one reason I chose it-- to show you that it can be a little difficult.
I'’’ll take a beer can opener on one side, a knife on the other.
Going to lift it up.
That'’’s how I can see it coming out.
I think they could'’’ve designed this a little bit better.
(exclaims) That'’’s hot, but there she is.
Now you see, there it is, and that... '’’Cause this mold was a little higher than our metal Charlotte mold.
Now, I'’’ve got that under here.
You see, you had the difference in heights here.
This one is going to... As it sits, it'’’s going to sink down probably about half an inch.
And this one-- I didn'’’t even fill this one as high as I could have, but that has sunk down to within... about two-thirds, but it does not sink down any farther than that.
And if you get this soufflé done ahead of time, you can unmold it, and I'’’ve buttered the platter so if it wasn'’’t quite centered right, I could move it a little bit.
And then you could put a mold or a bowl back on it, and then stick it in a warming oven.
It will stay perfectly well for half an hour.
See, that'’’s the beauty of this soufflé.
You'’’re the complete boss of it at every inch of the way.
And now, I think, with a cheese soufflé, it'’’s good to serve a sauce with it.
You can serve mushroom or shrimp or fresh tomato, whatever appeals to you.
I have a little tomato sauce here.
And then, another reason for the sauce is, you might have unmolded, and if you hadn'’’t buttered the bottom quite enough, you'’’d find that there might be a few little bald spots on top, and then you could just-- in that case-- you could just put some sauce on the top of it.
In this case, this is unmolded, and I see there'’’s sort of a little freckle there, so in that case, I think I'’’ll just put a little bit of parsley.
You always have to have parsley and other things around, just in case you have to do a little bit of cover-up work somewhere, and...
So this, you see, we don'’’t have to worry about rushing into the dining room the way you do with a usual soufflé, so I could just leisurely walk in with no fears.
And here is our soufflé, and we'’’re serving it, this time, for a chic little luncheon.
And this is a main course.
It would be very nice for supper, too.
And I'’’m gonna...
When you serve, remember to back and back... your fork and serving spoon, and then pull the soufflé apart at first.
As you see with this, it has a perfectly lovely, delicate texture.
Although you could...
It just doesn'’’t have...
It has nothing to do with a pudding or...
It'’’s just like the best soufflé you can imagine.
And with it, you could serve a green salad, or some buttered asparagus tips and some French bread.
And I would serve an Alsatian wine.
I'’’ve picked the Gewüürztraminer, which is delicious with this.
And now, this... with this soufflé, you don'’’t have to use just cheese.
You have... For these proportions, you'’’d have one cup of any kind of other flavoring you'’’d like, like cooked chopped seafood.
So what'’’s difficult about this soufflé?
You'’’ll just make it once, and remember, all we did about the egg whites, of the beating and the folding in.
And I think you'’’ll find that this soufflé is gonna be one of your very best friends, '’’cause any time you want to have something that'’’s easy to assemble-- as this certainly is-- but that'’’s dramatic to serve and delicious to eat, just remember the non-collapsible soufflé.
So, that'’’s all for today on The French Chef.
This is Julia Child.
Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org ♪ ♪ ANNOUNCER: The French Chef has been made possible by a grant from Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated and a grant from the Polaroid Corporation.